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Quality control requirements, acceptance samplinginspections, acceptance criteria Person, office, or agency responsible for enforcement of the specification. Provisions for rejection, reinspection, rehearing, corrective measures References and citations for which any instructions in the content maybe required to fulfill the traceability and clarity of the document    Signatures of approval, if necessary  Change record to summarize the chronological development, revision and completion if the document is to be circulated internally  Annexes and Appendices that are expand details, add clarification, or offer options.
Specifications describe the quality and performance of building materials, using code citations and published standards, whereas the drawings or Building Information Model BIM illustrates quantity and location of materials.
The guiding master document of names and numbers is the latest edition of MasterFormat. This is a consensus document that is jointly sponsored by two professional organizations: While there is a tendency to believe that "Specifications overrule Drawings" in the event of discrepancies between the text document and the drawings, the actual intent must be made explicit in the contract between the Owner and the Contractor.
This is based on the idea that words are easier for a jury or mediator to interpret than drawings in case of a dispute. The standard listing of construction specifications falls into 50 Divisionsor broad categories of work types and work results involved in construction.
The divisions are subdivided into sections, each one addressing a specific material type concrete or a work product steel door of the construction work. A specific material may be covered in several locations, depending on the work result: The original listing of specification divisions was based on the time sequence of construction, working from exterior to interior, and this logic is still somewhat followed as new materials and systems make their way into the construction process.
Each Section is subdivided into three distinct Parts: The MasterFormat and Section Format  system can be successfully applied to residential, commercial, civil, and industrial construction.
Although many Architects find the rather voluminous commercial style of specifications too lengthy for most residential projects and therefore either produce more abbreviated specifications of their own or use ArCHspec which was specifically created for residential projects.
These systems were created to standardize language across the United States and are usually subscription based. Specifications can be either "performance-based", whereby the specifier restricts the text to stating the performance that must be achieved by the completed work, "prescriptive" where the specifier states the specific criteria such as fabrication standards applicable to the item, or "proprietary", whereby the specifier indicates specific products, vendors and even contractors that are acceptable for each workscope.
In addition, specifications can be "closed" with a specific list of products, or "open" allowing for substitutions made by the Contractor.
Most construction specifications are a combination of performance-based and proprietrary types, naming acceptable manufacturers and products while also specifying certain standards and design criteria that must be met.
While North American specifications are usually restricted to broad descriptions of the work, European ones and Civil work can include actual work quantities, including such things as area of drywall to be built in square meters, like a bill of materials. This type of specification is a collaborative effort between a specwriter and a quantity surveyor.
This approach is unusual in North America, where each bidder performs a quantity survey on the basis of both drawings and specifications. In many countries on the European continent, content that might be described as "specifications" in the United States are covered under the building code or municipal code.
Civil and infrastructure work in the United States often includes a quantity breakdown of the work to be performed as well. Specification writers are either employees of or sub-contractors to architects, engineers, or construction management companies.
Specification writers frequently meet with manufacturers of building materials who seek to have their products specified on upcoming construction projects so that contractors can include their products in the estimates leading to their proposals.
Many architects, up to this point, did not provide specifications for residential designs, which is one of the reasons ArCHspec was created: Shorter form specifications documents suitable for residential use are also available through Arcom, and follow the 50 division format, which was adopted in both the United States and Canada starting in The 16 division format is no longer considered standard, and is not supported by either CSI or CSC, or any of the subscription master specification services, data repositories, product lead systems, and the bulk of governmental agencies.
Construction specifications in Egypt[ edit ] Specifications in Egypt form part of contract documents. The HBRC has published more than 15 books which cover building activities like earthworks, plastering etc.
Construction specifications in the UK[ edit ] Specifications in the UK are part of the contract documents that accompany and govern the construction of a building. They are prepared by construction professionals such as architectsarchitectural technologistsstructural engineerslandscape architects and building services engineers.This powerful and inspiring seminar will transform the way you teach writing to children (and perhaps your own writing as well)!
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