Thinking and Critical Thinking Every human being is capable of thinking, but some say that few are able to practice critical thinking. Thinking is the mental process, the act and the ability to produce thoughts.
Defined by the reader-text relationship: Reading comprehension and recall Evidence of content validity According to Standards for Educational and Psychological Testinga fundamental concern in judging assessments is evidence of validity. Assessments should represent clearly the content domain they purport to measure.
Based on their study of eight widely used and cited IRIs, Applegate, Quinn, and Applegate concluded that there were great variations in the way IRI text passages were structured, including passages with factual content.
They observed that biographies and content area text, in some cases, matched up better with the classic definition of a story. In a similar manner, Kinney and Harry noted little resemblance between the type of text passages included in many IRIs and the text type typically read by students in middle and high school.
Relative to the IRIs examined for this analysis, text passages varied by genre and length as well as by whether the text included illustrations, photos, maps, graphs, and diagrams.
A discussion of the ways in which the various IRIs approach these issues follows. Passage genre With regard to the text types included in the IRIs under review here aligned with the perspective that reading comprehension varies by text typefive of the eight IRIs provide separate sections, or forms, for narrative and expository passages for all levels, making it easy to evaluate reading comprehension and recall for narrative text apart from expository material Applegate et al.
However, caution is advised. Despite the separation of genres, in some of the current IRIs, consistent with Applegate et al.
The passage is placed in the Expository Form LE section; however, the first comprehension question asks, "What is this story about? In fact, the authors note most of the passages were drawn from textbooks. A few of the IRIs appear to take a more holistic approach in their representation of the content domain.
In these IRIs, there is no clear separation of narrative and expository text passages. Passage length While the passages generally become longer at the upper levels to align with the more demanding texts read by older students, across inventories passage lengths at the same levels vary; some cases, within the same inventory, authors offer passages of different lengths as options at the same levels see Table 1.
For example, finding that beginning readers sometimes struggled with the word, pre-primer passage in earlier editions, Johns now includes in the ninth edition of BRI a second, shorter passage option of 25 words for each form that offers passages at the preprimer level.
In a similar manner, he offers passages of two different lengths at levels Pictures and graphic supplements Noting the benefits and drawbacks of including illustrations and other graphic supplements with the passages, IRI authors vary in their opinions on this matter.
BaderCooter et al. Evidence of construct validity According to Standards for Educational and Psychological Testinga valid test also captures all the important aspects of the construct i. Across IRIs examined, comprehension question frameworks varied in terms of which aspects of narrative or expository text comprehension they centered on, as well as what dimensions, or levels, of comprehension they measured.
In addition, across the IRIs reviewed, assorted measures were used to identify extraneous factors potentially affecting comprehension scores. A discussion of the various ways in which each IRI handles these issues follows. All of the IRIs attempt to assess these areas either through their question schemes alone or in combination with a retelling and rubric assessment; however, in some cases, the authors use different terms for the dimensions of comprehension they measure.
For measuring narrative text comprehension and recall, six of the eight IRIs focus their question schemes and retelling rubrics on story elements e. It should be noted that the question schemes of Burns and Roe, Johns, and Woods and Moe are structured differently see Table 1.
In the assessment of expository text comprehension and recall, there is greater variety across IRIs. Four IRIs use question schemes or rubrics based on the levels of importance of information e.
Taking a different approach, Woods and Moe and Cooter et al. Johns includes a variety of rubric options specific to narrative and expository text passages but also more holistic rubrics that he suggests can be used with retellings of any text type. In addition, in the QRI-4, Leslie and Caldwell provide a think-aloud assessment option useful for capturing information about the strategies readers use while they are in the process of constructing meaning based on the text.
To facilitate the use of this assessment option, some of the expository text passages at the sixth, upper middle school, and high school levels are formatted in two different ways that allow for conducting assessments with or without student think-alouds.
The authors also provide a coding system for categorizing the think-aloud types based on whether they indicate an understanding or lack of understanding of the text. It should be noted that Bader and Silvaroli and Wheelock use similar criteria for assessing comprehension and recall of narrative versus expository text.
For example, in using the BRLI Bader, for the assessment of narrative and expository passages, readers are asked to retell the "story" p. Without a theoretical framework and clearly defined criteria to guide the examiner, it is difficult to determine if the assessment effectively captures the essential qualities of reading comprehension and recall.
Use of a scoring guide based on story grammar theory seems misplaced as a tool for judging comprehension of expository text. Although the terms for these constructs vary, and there may be subtle differences in meanings across inventories, the dimensions overlap.CRITICAL READING SECTION There are two types: Long Reading and Short Reading You’ll see Short Reading questions (around 4 per section) You’ll see one or two Long Reading passages per section; each passage can have anywhere from 5 to 15 questions.
Long Reading Passages. Browse our free collection of reading passages in all literary and nonfiction genres for grades Reading Assessment Database - List of All Assessments from the Database.
The essential cognitive elements of the reading process have been outlined in the Cognitive Framework of torosgazete.com assist educators in organizing their assessment practices around the cognitive framework, we've created a way to easily search for published early reading assessments that specifically test skills and.
Reading Comprehension Worksheets & Printables. Reading comprehension skills are an essential building block for academic success. Whether your child is just beginning to read or is already an advanced reader, we have printable reading comprehension worksheets containing folktales, modern stories, nonfiction, and more.
Reading Comprehension Tests Links verified on 10/2/ A Special Christmas Present - Read the text on the left and answer the questions.; Causes of Floods - Read the text on the left and answer ten questions.; The Effects of Stress - Read the text on the left and answer nine questions.; From Carrots to Renovations: How I Spent $10, without Really Trying - Read the text on the left and.
Science Investigations Help students dig deeper into science content with Investigation Packs from Science A–Z.
|Literal Comprehension||In fact, if you combine this one tip with my Sentence Completion methodyour Critical Reading score will go up by 50 to points. Sometimes when you read a passage, you may get confused by certain words, sentences, or even whole paragraphs.|
|Free Online Reading Comprehension Exercises||History[ edit ] Initially most comprehension teaching was based on imparting selected techniques for each genre that when taken together would allow students to be strategic readers.|
Students practice close reading and working in groups while answering text-dependent questions.