Explanation of current form in terms of a historical sequence Static view Explanation of the current form of species How vs. However, claiming that a particular mechanism is well suited to the present environment is different from claiming that this mechanism was selected for in the past due to its history of being adaptive. On the one hand, function and evolution are often presented as separate and distinct explanations of behaviour. However a trait can have a current function that is adaptive without being an adaptation in this sense, if for instance the environment has changed.
Table of Contents Introduction When Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species inhis theory of natural selection set the stage for scientists to consider animal behavior in an evolutionary light.
With this foundation, Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and Karl von Frisch began to seriously practice ethology, the study of animal behavior. Niko Tinbergen developed four questions that have been used ever since to model the study of animal behavior.
The first question asks about the mechanisms of a behavior. What stimulates the animal to respond with the behavior it displays, and what are the response mechanisms? The second question concerns the translation of genotype to phenotype.
How does an organism develop as the individual matures?
As an individual grows from an embryo to an adult, what developmental processes allow the implementation of behaviors? The third question deals with the function of a particular behavior.
Why is the behavior necessary for the animal's success and how does evolution act on that behavior? The fourth question examines the evolutionary history of a behavior.
How has a particular behavior evolved through time? Can we trace a common behavior of two species back to their common ancestor? The first two questions are proximate questions: The last two questions are ultimate questions: Ultimate questions involve evolutionary and historical thinking.
In this SparkNote, we will first study instinctive aspects of behaviorboth in terms of receiving information and responding to that information. Then we will look at more complex forms of reception and implementation, the cognitive process of learning.
Next, we will see how animals communicatesending information about themselves to other animals, and receiving information about other animals.
Following that, we will learn about the ways in which animals orient in and navigate about their environments in response to the information they have received.
Finally, we will explore the ecological aspects of behaviorincluding optimal strategies, kin relationships, and sexual behavior.In his paper Niko Tinbergen, ethologist and ornithologist, and subsequently joint Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, defined four approaches to asking questions within animal behaviour studies, mechanism, adaptive value, ontogeny, and phylogeny.
Chapter 51 Behavioral Ecology Lecture Outline. Overview: Studying Behavior In , Niko Tinbergen suggested four questions that must be answered to fully understand any behavior.
What is the mechanistic basis of the behavior, including chemical, anatomical, and physiological mechanisms? In the Netherlands-America Foundation gave me free passage to and from New York, which I used for a four months’ stay, eked out by fees for lectures given in halting English, by living for one dollar a day in YMCAs (40 c for a room, 50 c for a day’s food, and 2 nickels for the subway), and travelling by Greyhound.
Using ‘Tinbergen’s four questions’, I will explain what necessity for this behaviour and what the origins of the silent behaviour may have been.
Tinbergen’s Four Questions In Nikolaas Tinbergen published a paper “On aims and methods of ethology”. Consider at least two of Tinbergen's 'four questions' with regards to filial imprinting. Tinbergen’s ‘four questions’ identifies a publication from by Niko Tinbergen, among the founding fathers of behavioural biology (Giraldeau, ).
Niko Tinbergen developed four questions that have been used ever since to model the study of animal behavior.
The first question asks about the mechanisms of a behavior. What stimulates the animal to respond with the behavior it displays, and what are the response mechanisms?