Much of the population uses speech for expressing emotions or thoughts or for asking questions

Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. I want my students to be able to form a relationship with the reader by creating a speaker's voice that is lively, engaging, and interesting. As the students immerse themselves in Langston Hughes's powerful masterpieces, they will understand voice in poetry.

Much of the population uses speech for expressing emotions or thoughts or for asking questions

Introduction The relationship between language and emotions can be viewed from two angles.

Communication and Leadership

First, language, in a broad sense, can be viewed as being done [performed] "emotive". Taking this angle, it is commonly assumed that people, at least on occasions, "have" emotions, and that "being emotional" gains its own agency, impacting in a variety of ways on the communicative situation.

Although research along this line of reasoning focuses primarily on the "expression" of emotions, i. In this view, language and emotion are two concurrent, parallel systems in use, and their relationship exists in that one system emotions impacts on the performance of the other language.

Both of them share their functionality in the communicative process between people. The other tack on the relationship between language and emotion inverts the directionality of the view just discussed.

It starts from the assumption that language in a way refers to, and therefore "reflects" objects in the world, among them the emotions: Languages have emotion terms, and people across the world engage in talk about the emotions - though not necessarily to the same degree and with the same obsession and reflexivity as in the so-called Western world.

In this view it remains unspecified whether emotions are 'real' objects in the world such as behaviors or whether they are 'internal' psychological states or processes resembling other psychological processes such as thoughts or intentions.

Much of the population uses speech for expressing emotions or thoughts or for asking questions

This view then takes a different tack to the language-emotion relationship. Language is a means of making sense of emotions, and as such can be used as a starting point to explore the world of emotions in different languages as well as in different "language games".

However, taking this orientation as the starting point, one is immediately challenged to consider the role of language in much more detail. Language, in this view, is "transparent". If language, however, is conceived of in one or another way as contributing to how emotions are understood, or even, to what emotions "are", the relationship is not direct, but mediated.

Voice in Poetry: Dream a World with Langston Hughes

It is this second orientation that I will take as a starting point for this paper. First, I will, in an admittedly rather eclectic fashion, discuss three approaches that revolve around language issues as a starting point to explore emotions section 1.

I selected these three different approaches for two reasons: First, they start from quite different assumptions of what language is, how it functions, and in addition, with regard to its transparency.

Much of the population uses speech for expressing emotions or thoughts or for asking questions

Examining the assumptions that lie behind the individual approaches will help reveal some of the background that led to my own "linguistic-constructionist" approach 3. Second, although I am somewhat critical of all three theoretical frameworks discussed, they have been and still are the most appealing to me, in as far as they were most influential in my own thinking after my interest in the relationship between emotions and language had been spurred by two of my mentors, George Lakoff and Dick Lazarus, during my graduate training in Berkeley.

After having taken critical account of the three approaches, particularly with their underlying assumptions regarding the role of language and the approach to development invoked, I will turn in section 2 to a summary of some of my own findings. These originated from a project that was funded by The Spencer Foundation, having led me to see the need to continue this line of research with a stronger emphasis on cross- cultural comparisons.

In the last section of this paper section 3 I will turn to some more methodological and theoretical considerations with regard to the relationship of language and emotions, opening up the central issue of the role of language in the appropriation of the emotions and in their development.

Questionnaire design

Language as a tool to explore emotions 1.One of the most important ways to determine whether respondents are interpreting questions as intended and whether the order of questions may influence responses is to conduct a pretest using a small sample of people from the survey population.

In the Prayer speech, Clinton uses many persuasive techniques that aid his purpose in asking for forgiveness and that help understand his, as well as their, course of action that must be taken. Throughout the speech, Clinton uses pathos in order to make .

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As Quirk et al. () define it, a private state isa state that is not open − speech events expressing private states.

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