History of food in manhattan essay

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History of food in manhattan essay

Black and McKay noted that mottled teeth did not seem to have a higher incidence of tooth decay, and Dean extended those findings, although that was not his job. A man History of food in manhattan essay specifically assigned to investigate the damage that a particular chemical did to teeth, but somehow concluded that the chemical was instead good for teeth.

Ironically, the PHS spent the ten years after trying to eliminate fluorine ions from the water supply, given the tooth mottling findings. Cox partly based his fluoridation suggestion on the work of Gerald Armstrong, who in published findings that decayed teeth seemed to have lower fluorine content than healthy teeth.

InArmstrong published a reinvestigation of his findings, and concluded that his earlier findings were wrong, and that there was no detectable difference in the fluoride content of healthy and decayed teeth. Naturally occurring fluoride in the water supply is usually composed of fluorine and calcium atoms.

What component of dissolved calcium fluoride might have a positive effect on bones and teeth? The calcium aspect was ignored, while the fluorine component was obsessively pursued.

The fluoride compounds artificially added to the water supply are sodium fluoride and fluosilicic acid, which are industrial waste byproducts. If the data supporting fluoridation is analyzed, it quickly becomes evident that all the pro-fluoridation people have in their favor are highly uncertain statistics.

The theories are conflicting, as is the data.

History of food in manhattan essay

It is quite the double-edged sword. Even giving the pro-fluoridation forces the benefit of the doubt regarding their statistics, their data on the benefit of fluoride amounts to one tooth per mouth, which is not very exciting. Even if the motivation of most pro-fluoridation researchers were not suspect, their empirical and statistical methods are.

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Many criticisms have been leveled at the methods of fluoridation researchers regarding uncontrolled variables, omission of pertinent data, mathematical errors, and outright bogus science. Largent was a consultant for Reynolds Aluminum.

Armstrong was a comrade-in-arms with Dean and McClure, promoting fluoridation. Hodge had a sinister relationship to the fluoridation issue, discovered through declassified U. Dean was not the first person to suggest that fluoride might be good for teeth.

It was suggested as early asas it was detected in bones and teeth, although experiments in the s disproved the notion. They and their corporate sponsors eventually prevailed, as money speaks loudly in America, and corporations are considered people with "free speech" rights.

At that time, two cities were undergoing water-supply fluoridation tests: The tests were to run for 10 to 15 years to collect data. Ewing began campaigning for a national fluoridation program when those tests were only two years old, and no significant data was available or even possible.

ALCOA was advertising the blessed purity of its sodium fluoride. Eventually, the fluoridation results for Newburgh and Grand Rapids were partially published and largely have been ignored ever since. Although there was no measurable decrease in tooth decay, Newburgh boys had twice the incidence of skeletal deformities and a higher tooth-mottling rate as compared to the unfluoridated control group in nearby Kingston.

Seeing how Newburgh fared, Kingston has successfully resisted having its water supply fluoridated ever since. Other Newburgh data was noteworthy, although largely suppressed: Newburgh developed one of the highest heart disease rates in the USA, and girls came to puberty earlier than the control group.

The heart disease rate in Grand Rapids doubled after the first five years of the fluoridation experiment. The PHS and other bureaucracies would never back down from their position, no matter what.

The rash and possibly dishonest decisions made before I was born will be enforced as long as there is the power to do so. There was plenty of public uproar over fluoridation in the s, but money not only talks in America, it dictates.

The lo gic is that fluoride is good for the teeth at one PPM, but begins causing health problems at concentrations of less than two PPM.The written history of New York City began with the first European explorer the Italian Giovanni da Verrazzano in European settlement began with the Dutch in The "Sons of Liberty" destroyed British authority in New York City, and the Stamp Act Congress of representatives from throughout the Thirteen Colonies met in the city in .

The official website of William Cronon. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature. The Case for Reparations. Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal. Thirty-five years of racist housing policy.

In many ways, The Physiology of Taste applied the essence of Enlightenment thought to food, cooking, and eating.

New York City in the 18th Century

It is a massive and thorough discourse written by an author supremely confident in his ability to know himself and all of his faculties, from consumption to cognition, in perfect detail.

My President Was Black. A history of the first African American White House—and of what came next. For now, a stroll through the Essex Street Market is still a comforting visit to an older Manhattan, one not driven mad by the latest food fads, or obsessed with glossy new food halls.

History of New York City - Wikipedia