The change from one paradigm to another is not wholly justifiable or rational. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,
Egoism and Moral Skepticism Book: Contemporary Moral Problems Amazon: The learning expectation for this chapter review would be I would learn more about egoism.
What is it all about and why is it important. For me, this chapter is all about teaching what selfishness and what unselfishness is. In this chapter, it discusses The Legend of Gyges is all about a shepherd who found a ring in a fissure cause by an earthquake, which the ring can make the wearer invisible and enable him to go anywhere and do anything undetected.
Gyges use the power of the ring to gain entry to the Royal Palace where he seduced the Queen and murdered the King and subsequently seized the throne. In this case, it simply describes men are selfish because of their self-interests and selfishness is an egoism.
Egoism has two views, the psychological egoism and ethical egoism. Psychological Egoism is the view that all men are selfish in everything that they do, that is, that the only motive from which anyone ever acts is self-interest.
Ethical Egoism is, by contrast, a normative view about how men ought to act. It is the view that, regardless of how men do in fact behave, they have no obligation to do anything except what it is in their own interests.
This chapter explains that it is up to the person whether he would do something just for his self-interest or for the benefit of the majority or the many. What have I learned is that why people are sometimes selfish and what forces people such selfishness.
What is psychological egoism? What is ethical egoism? Who are the egoists? What is ethical altruism? Explain the legend of Gyges. What questions about morality are raised by the story? The Legend of Gyses is all about a shepherd who found a ring in a fissure cause by an earthquake, which the ring can make the wearer invisible and enable him to go anywhere and do anything undetected.
The questions about morality that are raised in the story are: How will the so-called virtuous man behave? Distinguish between psychological and ethical egoism. Rachels discusses two arguments for psychological egoism.
What are these arguments and how does he reply to them? The two arguments for psychological egoism are: Rachels reaction to this is that the argument is so bad that it would not deserve to be taken seriously except for the fact that so many otherwise intelligent people have been taken in by it.
The second argument is, since so-called unselfish actions always produce a sense of self-satisfaction in the agent and since this sense of satisfaction is a pleasant state of consciousness, it follows that the point of action is really to achieve a pleasant state of consciousness, rather than to bring about any good for others.
Rachels reaction to this is that this argument suffers from defects similar to the previous one.
Why should we think that merely because someone derives satisfaction from helping others this makes him selfish? What three commonplace confusions does Rachels detects in the thesis of psychological egoism?
The three commonplace confusions that Rachels detects in the thesis of psychological egoism are: State the arguments for saying that ethical egoism is inconsistent. The arguments for saying that ethical egoism is inconsistent are: To say that any action or policy of action is right entails that it is right for anyone in the same sort of circumstances.
I cannot, for example, say that it is right for me to lie to you, and yet object when you lie to me. I cannot hold that it is all right for me to drink your beer and then complain when you drink mine.
How can the egoist reply? The egoist, no doubt, will not be happy with this. Are genuine egoists rare, as Rachels claims? Genuine egoists are not rare according to Rachels because he explains that most of the people are doing anything to help others and not just for self-interest and it is a fact.
Is such a view immoral or not? For me, it is not immoral, if you believe that what you are doing are for others then do it.Skepticism (and all philosophy) cannot avoid the cumbersome nature of human language and the simple fact that the only tool humans have to investigate the nature of existence is the brain, which spawns coherent thoughts in a lingual form.
Arguments Against Moral Relativism Moral relativism is the belief that the morally correct. Mar 12, · Psychological Egoism is the view that all men are selfish in everything that they do, that is, that the only motive from which anyone ever acts is self-interest.
Ethical Egoism is, by contrast, a normative view about how men ought to act. Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, .
John Dewey, American Pragmatist. A wing of the Pragmatism Cybrary. John Dewey () was an American psychologist, philosopher, educator, social critic and political activist.
He was born in Burlington, Vermont, on 20 October Dewey graduated from the University of Vermont in , and received his PhD from Johns .
Feb 25, · On War, by General Carl von Clausewitz. Page 1 of The Project Gutenberg EBook of On War, by Carl von Clausewitz This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 5th edition (previous editions by James Problems from Philosophy, 2nd edition (1st edition by James Rachels), New York.
james rachels: egoism and moral scepticism - .